Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Competitor Analysis Master Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Competitor Analysis Master - Assignment Example Dolan, 1991). This will help the company n making the necessary modifications either to its product or its marketing strategy or both as & how the situation demands. Such an effective definition of the marketing strategy & the assessment of the degree of competition with the market may also be applied to the tourism industry as well. The present essay is an attempt on the same line to determine in brief about the various strategies & competitive policies that need to be worked out by any tourism sector to be able to offer healthy & stiff competition using many popular marketing models. Strategies are the long term goals that are set up by any business entity for the purpose of achieving the desired objectives in addition to the fulfillment of the needs & tastes of the customers. The concept of marketing is no exception to this fact and as such, any marketing activity should be effectively planned & implemented according to a well-defined strategy. A strategy is different from a tactic wherein the latter is mainly concerned with addressing the short term goals of the organization with regards to the a particular product or a specific market situation. As opposed to this, a strategy is usually devised for a long period that sometimes runs into months or even years for satisfying a major objective such as an expansion of the organization into new sectors, popularizing a new product that is proposed to be introduced into the market etc.In general, there are two major parts under strategic marketing: Assessing the competition in the market. Implementing the strategic action plan as part of the usual operations. The present markets are extremely competitive in nature. Therefore, there needs to be a consistent strategy in order to provide for a way to outclass other products that provide competition through effective marketing strategies. But, in addition to having a well-defined strategy that aims to take care of long term goals & ambitions, one also needs to have an action plan in place for everyday activities. In addition, one also needs to make sure that there are adequate resources for the purpose of being able to fulfill the desired objectives.The decision of the overall strategy & its planning are hugely influenced by the market condition & the organization's objectives. These considerations can be briefly classified as shown below (Coskun Samli, 1998): If the market is favourable & the organization occupies the best position, then the best option is to mobilize the best resources towards achieving organizational goals. If the market situation is favourable but the organization's place is a bit weaker in comparison to other industry players, then the goal of the strategists should be aimed at making the best offer towards improving & consolidating the place of the company in the market. In case the market is not favourable, but the organization is better placed in comparison to its competitors, then strategic marketing policies will ultimately work towards generating short-term profits. If both the market and the organization's situation are not satisfactory, then strategic marketing should be undertaken if & only if it is felt that the proposed initiative would be beneficial at least towards a part of the business entity.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

BPPG Part I, Personal and Professional Ethics Essay

BPPG Part I, Personal and Professional Ethics - Essay Example This defines the act or process of guiding people towards a desired objective and can apply to the goal of ensuring ethics in a society. As a transformational leader, I can empower and motivate people around me to overcome challenges and to ensure ethical practices in their environments. I can empower the people, intellectually, by informing them of involved ethical issues in the business environment. I can also inform the people of possible consequences of unethical practices such as negative corporate image of an institution and possible harm to the surrounding community. Similarly, I can create awareness of possible secondary effects of unethical practices on the individuals and organizations. Such secondary effects emanate from the society. As a leader, in the approach, I can ensure that my business and related activities are ethical in order to set an example to other people for emulation. I can also advocate for my ethical policies among the people (Reilly, Sirgy and Gorman 94, 95). Consumerism is another approach that I can use to impact ethics on people around me. It refers to the act or process of safeguarding consumer’ interests and is fundamental to promoting ethics among organizations and their members. Under this strategy, I can draw the people’s attention to effects that their activities, at personal or organizational level, can have on the environment. I can also facilitate awareness of the benefits of preventing those consequences through responsible behavior. Similarly, I can research and report to the people about possible consequences of utilities from the environments and the cost of such consumptions on other people within the same environment. To those individuals who deal in production and distribution of goods, I can explain to them the categories of goods that are classified as necessities and explain the responsibility of ensuring that such commodities

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Replica Node Detection using Enhanced Single Hop Detection

Replica Node Detection using Enhanced Single Hop Detection REPLICA NODE DETECTION USING ENHANCED SINGLE HOP DETECTION WITH CLONAL SELECTION ALGORITHM IN MOBILE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 1. INTRODUCTION Sensor systems are being theme of enthusiasm among the scholarly community and industry because of those broad variety relevance in different system situations. WSNs comprise of an expansive number of little sensors, generally sent thickly in the objective territory to gather important information [1, 2]. Hubs pertaining to Sensors are asset obliged because of their little dimension plus it restricts the capacity of calculation and correspondence. The most widely recognized utilizations of WSNs incorporate living space checking, fringe watching in military, movement observing, and quiet observing in human services [3, 4]. In MWSNs [5, 6], hubs pertaining to sensor have extra portability capacity to meander inside an objective region. Versatile sensor hubs can give precise information contrasted with static hubs. The sensor quantity needed in MWSNs to cover an allocated region is extremely smaller than static WSNs. By and by, thick sending of portable hubs bolsters high unwavering qua lity and load adjusting. Regardless of all focal points, MWSNs have an exceptionally dynamic system topology because of versatility. Along these lines, the difficulties are duplicated contrasted with their static partners. The real difficulties incorporate correspondence, scope, distributive helpful manage, and safety [7, 8]. Safety has dependably been a basic issue of worry in WSNs [9]. WSN (Remote Sensor Network) contains a gathering of remote sensor hubs that forma correspondence arranges. These hubs gather the touchy data from the area in addition to propel those substance as an information to the foundation location at which it checks the information as well as ID transferred by the hubs pertaining to sensor. These sensor hubs are typically low valued equipment segments with imperatives on reminiscence dimension as well as calculation abilities. The transportable WSNs are like WSN aside from to facilitate the hubs pertaining to sensor are portable in character. The different u tilizations of Mobile WSNs incorporate mechanical autonomy, transportation framework, reconnaissance, and following. Analysts center to incorporate Mobile WSNs into the (Internet of Things) IoT [10]. Nonetheless, an immense measure of safety problem emerges as assaults because of absence of equipment support and shaky sensor hubs. One such assault is the hub replication assault. In sensor systems, aggressors catch and trade off hubs to infuse fake information into the system that influence the system correspondence plus functions. Such kind of assault has been recognized as reproduction hub assault [11]. The foe catches mystery inputs as of the traded off hubs also distributes those in terms of reproductions in the system. Reproductions have been imitated as legit via the nearby hubs plus typical hubs dont know about imitations send signals such as its nearby hubs. It likewise connives and goes about as honest to goodness hub that gives immovability to the system. The copy hubs have been managed by the foe. The issue is the reproduction hubs likewise hold the input which has been needed for safe correspondence in the system. Notwithstanding these issues, versatility of hubs, the plot of imitation, and sideway assaults are the principle trouble while distinguishing plus managing those copy hubs. At the point when the reproductions are not distinguished, then the system will be interested in aggressors and the system turns out to be more powerless. The recognition of copy hub in the Mobile WSNs has been a significant undertaking. In this way, just few location plans are being suggested [12]. Since the enemy appropriates imitation hubs wherever in the system, the versatility helped recognition plan has been needed to distinguish the copies in the system. In the prior works, versatility helped system, (Single Hop Detection) SHD, was proposed. In Single Hop Detection, every hub communicates its area maintain to its solitary jump neighbors and chooses the witness hu b.[13] The chose witness hub recognizes reproductions by playing out the confirmation procedure. Subsequently, it lessens correspondence overhead. Notwithstanding, when the reproductions plot by means of every additional, they select imitation as an observer hub. Consequently, the recognition exactness has been less. The primary target pertaining to the suggested study has been to enhance the location exactness through the selection of the suitable witness hub with decreased overheads amid the discovery of copy hubs in the portable remote sensor systems. To congregate the goal, SHD is improved utilizing the AIS. Counterfeit Immune System (AIS) is a division of Artificial Intelligence in view of the standards of (HIS) Human Immune System. It gives different answers for this present reality issues because of its trademark highlights. The trademark highlights incorporate learning capacity to the novel circumstances, flexibility and dispersed personality to the various environment, rest ricted assets, as well as the ability to survive still in the brutal situations.[14] The upgrade of Single Hop Detection with AIS enhances the discovery precision. The commitment behind the research study tries to incorporate the upgrade of the SHD technique through application of the Clonal assortment calculation to select the observer hubs which has been a different commitment. Because of this, the discovery proportion is expanded through the selection of proper witness hubs and accordingly, the reproduction hub location handle causes least manage overheads. 2. MOTIVATION OF THE PROJECT Safety of Mobile WSNs is an indispensable test. One has been the hub replication assault, having a similar character of the caught hub, and the foe conveys an eccentric number of copies all through the system. Henceforth copy hub recognition is an imperative test With little exertion, a foe may catches, examinations, and repeats those of them as well as embed these copies at various areas inside the systems. Such assault may have a few results and may degenerate system information or critical divisions pertaining to the system. Existing strategies acquire manage overheads plus the discovery exactness has been little at which the copy is chosen in the form of an observer hub. The present study tries to suggest with regard to the improving of the SHD (Single Hop Detection) technique utilizing the Clonal assortment calculation to distinguish the duplicate through choosing the appropriate observer hubs. The benefits of the suggested strategy incorporate (i) increment in the identificatio n proportion, (ii) Decline in the management overhead, plus (iii) increment in throughput. The discovery rate likelihood alludes to location of the threat assault in a constrained era. The likelihood of recognition periods demonstrates that proposed technique distinguished the imitations in brisk, compelling and productive way. Something else, there could be a plausibility that an aggressor can exploit the late recognition to catch the entire correspondence. Vitality is likewise an essential parameter in reproduction location in light of the fact that an aggressor needs high vitality to screen the entire system. So also, the vitality of the portable hub ought to be effective to play out the recognition and alleviation handle for replication assaults. The likelihood of vitality that portable hub devours in the distribution plus getting messages by versatile hubs. The correspondence cost for discovery imitations ought to be attractive and high. Each versatile hub needs to amass the da ta, check and direct the examination for clones assaults identification (i.e., if similar hub character has been found). The recognition system ought to have high genuine optimistic speed (replica hubs are identified effectively) as well as the less untrue optimistic speed (typical hub is blamed as a replica). The execution of pertaining to the suggested study is measured utilizing identification proportion, false recognition proportion, parcel conveyance proportion, normal postponement, management overheads as well as throughput. The execution is done utilizing ns-2 to display the reality of the suggested study. 3. RELATED WORK The identification plans intended for still WSNs have not been material to MWSNs because of element system topology. An identification component in MWSNs should consider the portability of a hub with a specific end goal to distinguish copy [15]. The reproduction discovery instruments in MWSNs likewise stated in the writing are depicted underneath. The identification plans UTLSE (Unary-Time-Location Storage and Exchange) and MTLSD (Multi-Time-Location Storage and Diffusion) suggested [16] receive time-area guarantee approach. Every hub in Unary-Time-Location Storage and Exchange and Multi-Time-Location Storage and Diffusion saves various occurrences of time-area maintain of the followed hubs. With the gathering, of the time-area plans are traded flanked by two trackers to confirm the possibility of area cases. At the point when a contention emerges in the time-area confirmation procedure of a hub, it is distinguished as reproduction. A location conspire utilizing hubs pace has been su ggested [17]. The plan utilizes SPRT (Sequential Probability Ratio Test) to register hubs speed. At the point when a hub touches base at another area, it communicates now is the ideal time area state to the nearby hubs. Neighbors forward the got maintain to BS following effectively confirming the realness of the communication. The BS is in charge of social event time-area cases of the hubs plus evaluates their speed. A hub possessing the pace that is greater when compared to it has already defined with a pace cutoff is identified as reproduction through the BS. A pair wise key foundation procedure to recognize presence of reproduction is displayed [18]. The aggregate quantity pertaining to the pairwise keys set up by a hub is put away utilizing Counting Bloom channel. The tally of total keys in numbers built up is intermittently transferred to the BS viaevery hub. The got Counting Bloom channels are redesigned at BS for every hub in the system. At the point when the quantity of keys built up for a hub surpasses the predefined edge esteem, the hub is distinguished as copy by the BS. A solitary bounce based reproduction location plan has been suggested [19]. In the present work of the researchers, the observershub determination strategy for single-bounce imitation discovery is enhanced by utilizing clonal choice calculation. The best reasonable observer for a hub in its single-bounce neighbor is chosen utilizing the clonal choice calculation. The area unique finger impression sharing and confirmation strategy is utilized to recognize reproduction. The (Extremely Efficient Detection) XED plus EDD (Efficient Distributed Detection) plans have been suggested [20]. The recognition of copy in XED is based upon the trading of an irregular number between every combine of hubs, which is additionally called a test. At the point when a similar match of hubs gets together at a later purpose pertaining to the time, the test check has been executed. A hub that comes up short the test check process is recognized as a reproduction. In the Efficient Distributed Detection, a reproduction is identified in light of the tally pertaining to the quantity of gatherings between a couple of hubs. In the event that the quantity of gatherings of a hub over a period interim surpasses the predefined edge, after that it is recognized as copy. In the identification plans, the imitations are recognized through the BS. In these plans, BS is overloaded with calculation and reproduction discovery undertakings. There is likewise an extra in the clouds within the system for imparting between every one of the hubs and the BS. The XED component is not versatile to taking of test from a caught hub. In EDD plot, the execution of identification component relies on upon the quantity of gatherings edge, which is hard to assess in MWSNs. This has been on the grounds that the quantity of gatherings with a hub over a period interim relies on upon the system measure, the range of organiz ation, hubs pace, plus the versatility replica of the hubs. It alters with the variety of some of these constraints in the system. For instance, if the system size is expanded, then the quantity of gatherings with a specific hub diminishes, as prob 1/arrange measure. Assessing an edge upon the quantity of gatherings with a hub in the absence of taking into consideration the variety of the previously mentioned parameters may bring about false recognition. In the plan suggested [21], the imitation is recognized exclusively in light of a solitary instance of contention with the deliberate pace. The pace is registered utilizing the Euclidean separation between reported areas of a hub over a period interim. This might not register the real pace of a hub in the system with irregular waypoint portability demonstrate. At the point when a hub moves quicker by altering the course as often as possible, it never takes after a straight way. In addition, since the areas of copy and the first hub are utilized to gauge the straying velocity, the enemy may convey the reproductions to draw inside nearer buildings of the first hub to maintain the deliberate speed inside the acknowledged assortment. In the plan suggested , the area unique mark system is not reasonable for MWSN, because of the lively topography of the system. Also, choice of a solitary witness hub may prompt to low imitation recognition likelihood, at which the nearby hubs are every now and again changing after some time. The copy discovery process ought not choose in light of one time clashing conduct of a hub and its imitation while utilizing the parameters, for example, pace as well as the quantity of gatherings, yet rather conduct ought to be seen over various time interims display the (XED) eXtremely Efficienty Detection technique. This is an appropriated recognition calculation for versatile systems where the discovery depends upon the information traded between the hubs in the system. It recognizes the rep roduction in view of the arbitrary number traded among one another pertaining to the two hubs. The recognition capacity is debased when the copies trade the correct arbitrary esteem. [22] Suggested SHD (Single Hop Detection) technique. It is a versatility helped based ispersed recognition technique. In SHD technique, when a hub shows up at various neighborhood group, imitation is identified. This strategy enhances the correspondence overhead. 4. PROPOSED WORK The suggested upgraded SHD technique makes utilization of the Clonal determination calculation for the improvement. The improved SHD is like SHD with the exception of that the choice of witness hubs is finished through the Clonal assortment calculation. The suggested CSSHD like SHD comprises of unique mark claim and unique finger impression check stages. In the unique mark assert stage, the unique finger impression of the hubs neighbors is traded between the one-jump neighborhoods. The determination of witness hub is based upon the choice of lymphocytes at large in the Clonal collection calculation. The hub which has been most extreme capacity to forward information is chosen as witness hub. The greatest capacity of the observer hub is dictated by its sending ability. The sending capacity is controlled through the faith estimation of the hub. The trust esteem is ascertained in view of the information bundle sending proportion (DFR) as well as the manage parcel sending proportion (PFR ). The suggested CSSHD strategy aids in choosing the suitable witness hub. Consequently, the recognition exactness can be enhanced by distinguishing the copies with least control overheads. Amid experimentation, the attributes of every hub in the system and its execution are investigated utilizing the suggested CSSHD technique. The proposed philosophy is tried utilizing NS-2 test system, which is basic and surely understood system test system apparatus. The adaptation pertaining to NS-2 has been ns-This device is for the most part utilized as a part of the recreation region of MANET, remote sensor system, VANET, et cetera. Amid the reproduction time, the insights are gathered. The insights incorporates information parcels got, control bundles created, sent parcels, aggregate of all parcels delay, add up to number of got bundles, add up to number of reproduction hubs accurately discovered, add up to bytes got every second and aggregate quantity of kilobytes. Utilizing the above measu rements, the accompanying measurements are characterized: (i) Packet conveyance proportion, (ii) Control overhead, (iii) Standard postponement, (iv) Communication fall (v) Throughput, (vi) Discovery proportion, (vii) False caution rate, The execution pertaining to the suggested strategy is assessed as far as the given factors. The suggested study tries to improve its execution in every one of the measurements; especially, the discovery proportion is enhanced much superior to the current technique. 5. CONCLUSION In versatile WSN, hub replication assault is an essential one. The different reproduction recognition techniques are data traded based identification, hub meeting based location, and the portability based discovery. Of all the above mentioned three copy recognition techniques, the suggested study focuses on the versatility helped based location strategy.. The planned study upgrades the SHD strategy utilizing Clonal Selection calculation of AIS to enhance the recognition proportion through the choice of the good eyewitness hub. The suggested CSSHD strategy is utilized as a part of a completely appropriated environment where correspondence happens among single jump neighbors, exceedingly solid against hub plot and effective in securing against different copy hubs. The test is directed utilizing the ns-2 test system. The proposed technique is being great throughput, little above head and less untrue caution rate. The aftereffects pertaining to the suggested approach are contrasted and e xisting technique which demonstrates that the normal deferral, manage in the clouds, and communication drop have been minimized with higher bundle conveyance ortion esteem and higher recognition proportion. This demonstrates the proposed technique is proficient towards identifying duplicates which have been not flexible against deceitful reproductions with least control REFERENCE M. Carlos-Mancilla, E. LÂÂ ´opez-Mellado, and M. Siller (2016) , Wireless sensor networks formation: approaches and techniques, Journal of Sensors, vol. 2016,Article ID 2081902, 18 pages. S. Tanwar, N. Kumar, and J. J. P. C. Rodrigues (2015.) , A systematic review on heterogeneous routing protocols for wireless sensor network, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 53, pp. 39-56. A. Hadjidj, M. Souil, A. Bouabdallah, Y. Challal, and H. Owen (2013) , Wireless sensor networks for rehabilitation applications: challenges and opportunities, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1-15. K. Sohraby, D. Minoli, and T. Znati (2007) , Wireless Sensor Networks Technology, Protocols, and Applications , John Wiley Sons ,New York, NY, USA. J. Rezazadeh, M. Moradi, and S. A. 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Khan Pathan (2014), Routing protocol design for secureWSN: review and open research issues, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 517-530. C. P. Mayer (2009) , Security and privacy challenges in the internet of things, Electronic Communications of the EASST, vol. 17, pp. 1- 12. B. Parno, A. Perrig, and V. D. Gligor (2005) , Distributed detection of node replication attacks in sensor networks, in Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 49-63, IEEE, May. J.-W.Ho, D. Liu, M. Wright, and S. K. Das (2009), Distributed detection of replica node attacks with group deployment knowledge in wireless sensor networks, Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1476-1488. C.-M. Yu, Y.-T. Tsou, C.-S. Lu, and S.-Y. Kuo (2013) , Localized algorithms for detection of node replication attacks in mobile sensor networks, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 754-768. B. Zhu, V. G. K. Addada, S. Setia, S. Jajodia, and S. Roy (2007) , Efficient distributed detection of node replication attacks in sensor networks, in Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC 07), pp. 257-266, IEEE, Miami Beach, Fla, USA, December. J.-W. Ho, M. Wright, and S. K. Das (2011) , Fast detection of mobile replica node attacks in wireless sensor networks using sequential hypothesis testing, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 767-782. X. Deng, Y. Xiong, and D. Chen (2010) , Mobility-assisted detection of the replication attacks in mobile wireless sensor networks, in Proceedings of the 6th Annual IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob 10), pp. 225-232, October. H. R. Shaukat, F. Hashim, A. Sali, and M. F. Abdul Rasid (2014) , Node replication attacks in mobile wireless sensor network: a survey, International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 10, no. 12, Article ID 402541, pp. 1-15. X.-M. 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Saturday, January 18, 2020

Questions about map

List four questions about map objectives that would influence the design of a map. What am I making this map for and what am I trying to accomplish? Who will be viewing? Why will it be used? Is there privacy issues surrounding the project? 2. What factors should be considered In evaluating the balance of a map? Placement of features, the size of features, alignment of features, usage of space 3. What types of colors generally work best for maps? How can the psychology of colors be used to enhance a map's meaning?Pastels and earth are good for big map areas. Bold colors are good for emphasis. Some things have associations with colors. For example green for plant life or blue for water 4. List three common pitfalls that amateurs make when creating legends. Cryptic filenames, poor formatting of numeric numbers and not adjusting neatness for balance 5. What is a geographic coordinate system, and why is it a poor choice for creating maps? This is a bad method for making maps because of t he distortion the system makes when projecting the map.A geographic coordinate system does this cause it is a system based on a sphere. 6. What four properties are distorted by map projections? Which tend to be preserved by conic projections? What distortions are present in TM and State Plane projections? Area Shape Direction and Distance can all be distorted. TM and state plane are better for small area mapping as they tend to preserve area and distance. 7. Examine the map projections on the inside front cover of this text.List which projection(s) might be suitable for a (a) map of a county, (b) map of the united States, c) United States map used to calculate travel distances, and (d) United States map used to calculate areas. A)= TM or state plane b)= Equidistant Conic or Lambert conformal conic c)= Equidistant Conic d)= Albert Equal Area Conic 8. When does a north arrow not point up? When should a north arrow not be used? If a projection messes up the direction a north arrow cann ot be used as It does not conform with the data. A gratuities grid can be used to show north 9.If you have an Archive license and wish to create and use annotation In different AP documents, how would you need to store It? An annotation Is stored as a feature class In a sedateness. 10. What Is the difference between the map scale, the scale range, and the reference scale? Map scale- Is the ratio of units from the map to the world Scale range- controls the range of the scale at which the features are allowed to appear Reference scale- scale that determines at which symbols or text labels appear at their assigned size CHI GIS By Will-Huber 2. What factors should be considered in evaluating the balance of a map?Placement rejection(s) might be suitable for a (a) map of a county, (b) map of the United States, a projection messes up the direction a north arrow cannot be used as it does not 9. If you have an Archive license and wish to create and use annotation in different map documents, how would you need to store it? An annotation is stored as a feature class in a sedateness. 10. What is the scale= is the ratio of units from the map to the world Scale range= controls the range of the scale at which the features are allowed to appear Reference scale= scale that determines at which symbols or text labels

Friday, January 10, 2020

Marketing Mix-4p’s Strategy of Nestlé Pure Life (Npl) Essay

Product Strategy 1. Product Positioning: Product is something that is offered to the market. Nestlà © Pure Life (NPL) product strategy studies show that they are positioning the product with respect to its attributes that NPL is safe, pure, refreshing and healthy water. 2. Product line expansion: Nestlà © also does product line expansion; recently it has offered a 0.25 liter bottle of NPL in the market. It’s also using the company name with its product name i.e. Nestlà © Pure Life. NPL round shape and elegance of the bottle are instantly recognizable. Quality is cornerstone of NPL success. Nestle people say: â€Å"Quality is our more successful product and it is key to our success today and tomorrow.† Pricing Strategy 1. Non-price competition: In Price strategy, Nestle has adopted the strategy of non-price competition. It is offering one price for NPL to all cities of Pakistan. It also keeps the check on distributors to maintain single price of NPL. It offers trade discounts to its distributors. 2. Cost Based Pricing: The cost of production, which stands at the base of all pricing strategy, is well reflected in Nestle Pure Life price. Its rather higher price relative to other bottled waters can be explained using the Pricing Strategies Matrix. Since the quality of Nestle Pure Life is very high both from the Company’s and the consumers’ perspective, the high price justifies itself. Place of Distribution Strategy 1. Intensive distribution strategy: Placement is the distribution of the product to its customers at right time, in right quantity, at right price and at right place. To ensure this, channel adopted by the Nestlà © for distribution of NPL is as follows: Producer Wholesaler Retailer Consumer NPL comes under the category of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), so for this the timely supply is very important that’s why Nestlà © is following intensive distribution strategy. Promotion Strategies 1. Sponsorship: The Company is actively involved in sponsorship of educational and sports activities. In particular, the company sponsors Youth Pakhtakor, a young football team, and the friendly meetings or competitions of that team. Furthermore, outdoor posters and banners, references in movies and articles have made tens of thousands of people subconsciously aware of Nestle Pure Life (and other Nestle products). 2. Public relations: For establishing public relations, Nestlà © distributes its newsletters, annual reports, calendars and diaries, lobbying, donation for charitable and civic events. For the victims of 8th October 2005 earthquake, Nestlà © has donated 90 trucks, which were containing different foods items, and NPL was one of them which are around Rs. 2 Billion. The Nestle organized its teams to distribute products to the affected areas and all employees contributed from top to bottom.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

The Effects of Global Warming on the Great Barrier Reef...

The Effects of Global Warming on the Great Barrier Reef Introduction Coral reefs around the world are in danger. One of the causes is global warming, which has been increasing the temperature of the ocean water resulting in coral bleaching. This essay will focus on damage occurring to the Great Barrier Reef. What is a Coral Reef? A coral reef is a ridge formed in shallow ocean water by accumulated calcium-containing exoskeletons of coral animals, certain red algae, and mollusks. Coral reefs are tropical, forming only where surface waters are never cooler than 20 ° C (68 ° F). The only difference between a barrier reef and a coral reef is that a barrier reef occurs farther offshore, with a channel or lagoon between it and†¦show more content†¦Global Warming Global warming is the increase in the earths temperature caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and methane) in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases prevent infrared radiation from escaping into space, and this greenhouse effect maintains the earths warm temperature. Increasing levels of greenhouse gases, resulting from industry and the burning of fossil fuels, may result in rising global temperatures, causing coastal flooding and major climatic changes. According to the British Meteorological Office, 1995 was the warmest year on record and global temperatures continued to rise. A United Nations panel of scientists has predicted that if greenhouse gas emissions are not reduced, the average global temperature could rise by 1 ° to 3.5 ° C (1.8 ° to 6.3 ° F) by the year 2100. Whats Happening? Coral reefs are threatened by global warming. They can only live in waters between 18 C and 30 C. Therefore, with the increase in temperature of the surrounding water, there has been an unprecedented increase in the number of coral bleaching events during the past 2 decades (which have had some of the warmest years in history). When ocean temperatures get too high, coral polyps lose the symbiotic algae inside them, causing them to turn white, or bleach, and eventually die. In particular, Australia has been slow to cut back on greenhouse gas emissions. ThisShow MoreRelatedGlobal Warming And Its Effects On The Great Barrier Reef1443 Words   |  6 PagesHow has Carbon Dioxide (CO2) levels frequently increased global warming and the massive increase of global ocean temperature which have risen from 0.74oC during the 19th century to 4oC in modern day society (NOAA, 2016), and how does CO2 contribute to one of the biggest tragedies seen on the Great Barrier Reef today, known as coral bleaching and what can be done to slow the increasing rate of this terrible tragedy? â€Å"Coral reefs are extremely important for biodiversity, providing a home to over 25%Read MoreEnvironmental Issues Of The Great Barrier Reef980 Words   |  4 PagesOne environmental issues posted on the Facebook group on Ecologically Conscious Social is climate change’s effect impacts on the Great Barrier Reef where is one of the UNESCO world heritage sites. The Great Barrier Reef is located in Queensland, state of Australia. A concern raised by a group of environmentalists over a threat to the Great Barrier Reef is carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that emit from the burning of coal. The federation government environment minister, Mr. Greg Hunt approved a 16Read MoreEnvironmental Issues Of Great Barrier Reef914 Words   |  4 PagesOne environmental issues posted on the facebook group on Ecologically Conscious Social is climate change’s effect impacts on Great Barrier Reef where is one of the UNESCO world heritage sites. Great Barrier Reef is located in Queensland, Australia. Environmentalists raised concerns over emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) that poses significant threat to the world heritage site is carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions emit from burning of coal that produced from Adani mining company. The concerns were happenedRead MoreGlobal Warming And Its Impact On Our Earth1384 Words   |  6 Pagesquestions that contribute to global warming include the following: how and why does the community supply detrimental factors to the Earth to cause global warming, and how can the community contribute to the repair of our vanishing Earth? Both of these questions are constantly the idea behind many global organizations that aid in the improvement of our world. This topic needs to be addressed immediately in order to preserve what we have left of our Earth. Global warming is â€Å"the gradual heating of EarthRead MoreGlobal Warming And Its Impact On Our Earth1676 Words   |  7 Pagesthat we, as a global society, contribute to everyday. These concerns create major impacts that pertains to much of the globe and the world in which we inhabit today, compared to the world we lived in 50 years ago. Frequent statements that contribute to the overall thought of global warming include the following: how the community supplies detrimental factors to the Earth to cause global warming, and how can the community contribute to the repair of our vanishing Earth. Global warming is a seriousRead MoreGreat Barrier Reef893 Words   |  4 PagesThe Great Barrier Reef a World Heritage listed, it is the vastest stretch of coral reef in the world. This essay will provide information on how the Great Barrier Reef is being protected against global warming for our future generations. We all love going to the beach for a swim or a snorkel however a differe nt image was created by an article published by the Australian Academy of Science on their web site Nova Science in the News (2009): â€Å"Imagine you are on a beautiful tropical island on theRead MoreCause And Effect Of Global Warming953 Words   |  4 Pagesthe cause and effect of global warming, but it can take years for scientists to reach a consensus. The claims that global warming is the next apocalypse or is just some fairy tale lack scientific proof. These claims have confused the general public, and leave many citizens’ questions unanswered. Many people are concerned about the overall decline of environmental health due to an increase in man-made greenhouse gas emissions, but experts are now clarifying the debate on global warming with hard scientificRead MorePollution And Warming Of The Ocean1649 Words   |  7 PagesPollution and Warming of the Ocean The ocean is a vast and mysterious part of our ocean. The ocean covers 71 % of our planet and contains over 50% of all life on earth .(â€Å"Oceanic Institute†). The oceans also holds the deepest part of our planet that we have yet to explore and discover. The ocean is such a vital part of our planet and we are destroying it with pollution and mistakes that we have made. Global warming is a huge issue that we have to deal with. The world is getting warmer. WhetherRead MoreClimate Change and Global Warming1074 Words   |  5 PagesClimate change and Global Warming are out of control. This means that, no matter what policies, processes or actions are implemented, the Earth as we know it will never be the same again. There is significant evidence to support this hypothesis. The dilemma becomes whether we can limit the damage and adapt to a new status quo or not. Rising sea levels and the damage caused by this phenomenon has irreversible impacts on coastlines worldwide. Damage to sensitive reef systems cannot be fixed. This alsoRead MoreThe Effects Of Coral Reefs On Earth1245 Words   |  5 PagesCoral reefs are one of, if not, the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth are being destroyed at a rapid pace. Just recently in the past few weeks, the great reef barrier had been declared ~25% dead and people were freaking out on twitter. Before I took this cla ss, I had no clue how much coral reefs meant to us and to the organisms they are home to. Coral reefs are not only a home to ecosystems, but they also provide billions of dollars in food, jobs, and provide coastal protection. Coral reefs are being

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Gender Inequality And The Workplace - 1630 Words

INTRODUCTION While over time women have seen gains in educational attainment, labor force participation, and individual economic well-being, there still exists substantial differences in economic and material hardship between women and men[1] (Baunach, 2002; Isaac, Kaatz, Carnes, 2012; Levy Temin, 2007). There is substantial research on the role of sex segregation in the workforce, the gender wage gap, the glass ceiling and the differences in median earnings for men and women (England, 2010; England Folbre, 2003). Gender inequities and the economic experiences of women and men continue to be present in the life course as individuals enter senior age (Sullivan Meschede, 2016). Senior women are more likely to live in poverty than†¦show more content†¦What is unknown is whether the gender differences in food security and food security coping strategies continued as Americans age, in the same way gendered differences in the labor market and economic well-being continue into senior age. There is limited literature on senior food insecurity and an even smaller body of literature on the relationship to gender and senior food insecurity. There has been a steady growth in food insecurity among seniors. From 2003 to 2013 the rate of seniors experiencing the threat of hunger (marginally food insecure) has nearly doubled. In 2013, nearly half of those 65 and older who lived below the poverty rate faced the threat of hunger (AbuSabha et al., 2011; Ziliak Gundersen, 2014). Food insecurity among seniors will continue to grow, as the senior population becomes more diverse, there is an increase in the numbers of individuals who have higher risks of food insecurity, including racial and ethnic minorities (Ortman Velkoff, 2014; Ziliak Gundersen, 2013, 2014). The senior population continues to grow in sheer numbers and will become part of a larger proportion in the United States, thus it is important to better understand differences in senior subpopulations. This paper is exploratory in nature and will answer two researchShow MoreRelatedWorkplace Inequality And Gender Inequality1678 Words   |  7 PagesWorkplace Inequality Brittany N. Shipley Central Penn College Abstract As you are reading you will be informed of the many factors that can contribute to workplace inequality. Three factors associated with workplace would include (1) the individuals gender can determine compensation (2) the race or ethnicity of an individual (3) the age of the individuals. All such factors contribute to the issues of workplace inequality, not only in gender but race and age as well. Keywords: Compensation, jobRead MoreGender Inequality Of The Workplace1255 Words   |  6 Pages Fact or Fiction: Gender Inequality in the Workplace Will respect resolve the gender inequality issue in the workplace? While there s always going to be a person who craves more money because greed is a major factor in why respect is in decline in the workplace. Gender inequality is prevalent in the workplace, but we can bridge the gap if more people had respect for their counterparts. Enforcing this amongst employees will cut down on discrimination lawsuit cases and these companies can growRead MoreGender Inequalities in the Workplace1963 Words   |  8 Pages‘Describe and analyse gender inequalities in the workplace?’ Gender inequalities in the workplace have been an ongoing issue for many years, which has mainly been central to women in the workplace, as senior management has prioritised men over women. This has made it very difficult for women to work their way up to management as women are considered to be incompetent compared to the men in the workplace. The wage gap between men and women has raised much debate, as men are generally more likelyRead MoreGender Inequality And The Workplace Essay1344 Words   |  6 PagesGender inequality or also known as gender stratification, is the unequal distribution of a society’s wealth, power, and privilege between females and males. (Scott and Schwartz, 2000). Even though gender equality in the workplace has improved substantially in the US since 1979 especially when women started representing an increasingly larger share of the total workforce and earning about 62 percent as much as men, the women s average pay continues to be lower than thatRead MoreGender Inequality Within The Workplace Essay1209 Words   |  5 PagesGender Inequality in the Workplace The generation now has made it easier to equalize men and women but there is still a substantial amount of places where gender inequality is still happening in the workplace and where females still face discrimination. Women are often discriminated in the workplace and are usually not promoted as quickly as men are and they also receive less pay. History shows that women have not always been defined as property and thought of as second class citizens. But inRead MoreEssay on Gender Inequality in the Workplace1247 Words   |  5 Pagesexperienced a historic situation of inequality in the social as well as professional aspects. Women were normally the ones that would take care of children, do the chores in the house, and in rural areas; they would work in the field with the rest of the family. However, today’s women have become more self-sufficient and independent from the predominant male figure within every historical family. Gender inequality in the workplace is becoming l ess common; yet, gender is a factor that affects men andRead MoreGender Inequality During The Workplace1613 Words   |  7 PagesGender Inequality in the Workplace It was the holiday season and the workers were vigorously working to receive that desperately needed bonus. The day before the holiday break, the workers were eagerly lined up to receive their checks along with their bonuses. After receiving their checks, Susan got a glimpse of Christopher’s check and she noticed how she was paid far less than him even though they both had the same position and worked the same amount of hours. Throughout various aspects of societyRead MoreWorkplace Gender Inequality Essay1615 Words   |  7 PagesWorkplace Gender Inequality Gender inequality is currently a hot topic in our society. From education, to the entertainment industry, and more importantly, our daily lives, gender inequality has created a powerful divide between females and males with the seemingly same qualifications and background. The same trend follows in the workplace, females are less likely to hold positions of authority compared to their equivalent male counterparts. This is a key contributor to the lack of gender equalityRead MoreGender Inequality Within The Workplace1379 Words   |  6 Pages  Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender. It arises from differences in socially constructed gender roles as well as biologically through chromosomes, brain structure, and hormonal differences. There is a natural difference also in the relative physical strengths of the sexes. In the workplace Income disparities linked to job stratification Wage discrimination exists when workers are equally qualified and perform the same work butRead MoreGender Inequality During The Workplace1609 Words   |  7 PagesGender Inequality in the Workplace Times have changed; western women have more influence in the workplace than ever before in history. Today women make up 19% of Congress, almost double the share from 20 years ago. Five percent of women are now serving as CEOs of Fortune 500 companies (Pew Research â€Å"Women in Leadership). Approximately 65 percent of women work in high paying careers, triple that of 40 years ago. The gender gap in salary is also less than it was decades ago. In spite of these advances